CBSE Class 12 Biology Revised Syllabus 2022-23 | Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus
CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus: The present Biology curriculum aims at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to animals, plants and microorganisms as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. It promotes understanding of basic principles of Biology and enhances awareness about environmental issues, problems, and appropriate solutions.
BIOLOGY (Code No. 044)
CLASS XII (2022 -23) (THEORY)
theory: 70 marks
Time: 3 Hours
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit-VII: Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and Variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bees; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance – haemophilia, color blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Description of family Solanaceae
Origin of life; biological evolution and biological evidences for evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy–Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; humanevolution.
Unit-VIII: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence-drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IX: Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit-X: Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Abiotic Factors, Responses to Abiotic Factors, Adaptations)
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energyflow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Practical: 30 marks
Time: 3 Hours
A. List of Experiments
- Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
- Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
- Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
- Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
- Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B. Study and observe the following (Spotting):
- Flowers are adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
- Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
- Identification of stages of gamete development, ie, TS of testis and TS of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
- Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
- TS of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
- Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
- Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and color blindness.
- Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
- Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
- Models specimen showing symbolic association in root modules of leguminous plants, Cuscuta on host, lichens.
- Flash cards models showing examples of homologous and analogous organs.
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